Education and Intellectual Life
In Europe, censorship and oppression directed at Jewish communities often made it difficult to author, publish or obtain Jewish books. In eighteenth-century America, Jews took advantage of their right to free expression by publishing Jewish texts, including prayer books and Bibles. During the nineteenth century an impressive number of Jews pursued careers in journalism and related literary fields. In the twentieth century, the intellectual output of American Jewry, in all fields, was prolific. Jewish educators have utilized a multitude innovative programs and publications to further the cause of Jewish literacy in a variety of ways.