Access and Provenance

Biographical Sketch

Scope and Content Note

Box and Folder Listing

 

A Finding Aid to the

Richard L. Rubenstein Papers

Manuscript Collection No. 685 

1941-1992. 11.2 Linear ft.

ACCESS AND PROVENANCE

The Richard L. Rubenstein were donated to the American Jewish Archives in 1995 by Richard L. Rubenstein. The American Jewish Archives holds the property rights to the Papers. All literary rights to material authored by Richard L. Rubenstein are held by Rubenstein and his heirs. Questions concerning rights should be addressed to the Director of the American Jewish Archives.

The Richard L. Rubenstein Papers are open to all users and available in the reading room of the American Jewish Archives
 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH top

Richard L. Rubenstein was born on January 8, 1924 in New York City to Jesse George Rubenstein and Sarah Fine Rubenstein. Rubenstein attended the College of the City, New York, 1940-1942, and was a student at the Hebrew Union College from 1942-1945. In 1946 he received a B.A. from the University of Cincinnati. Disillusioned with Reform Judaism, Rubenstein received his Master’s of Hebrew Literature in 1952 from the Jewish Theological Seminary of America where he was also ordained as a rabbi. Desirous of furthering his theological knowledge, Rubenstein attended Harvard Divinity School and received a Master’s of Theology in 1955 and a Ph.D. in 1960. His thesis was titled “Psychoanalysis and the Image of Evil in Rabbinic Literature.” Psychoanalysis has remained an important topic throughout his career.

Rubenstein’s career as a rabbi was short-lived. His first position was at Temple Beth
Emunah in Brockton, Massachusetts, 1952-1954. He moved on to Temple Israel in Natick,
Massachusetts from 1954-1956. Rubenstein then took on the position of Assistant Director of the B’nai B’rith Hillel Foundation and chaplain to the Jewish students at Harvard University, Radcliffe and Wellesley, 1956-1958. From 1958-1970 he was the Director of the B’nai B’rith Hillel Foundation and chaplain to the Jewish students at the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie-Mellon University and Duquesne University. After these jobs, Rubenstein remained in academic positions.

After leaving Pittsburgh, Rubenstein went to Churwalden, Switzerland as a visiting
lecturer at the Albert Switzer College in the summer of 1963. In 1964 he returned to
Pittsburgh as the Charles E. Merrill Lecturer in the Humanities at the University of
Pittsburgh until 1969, when he became an Adjunct Professor of the Humanities. While there he taught courses on French Existentialism and Twentieth Century European Literature. In 1970 Rubenstein took a position as professor at Florida State University in Tallahassee, Florida in the Religion Department. He taught classes on Religion and Society, Freud, Hegel, Modern Judaism and the Holocaust. In 2001 Florida State University’s Religion Department created the Richard L. Rubenstein Chair of Religious Studies in his honor.

After many years at Florida State University as a Distinguished Professor of  Religion, Rubenstein assumed the presidency of the University of Bridgeport, in Bridgeport, Connecticut in 1995. He stepped down in 1999 and became the director of the Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, as well as remaining a faculty member.

Throughout his career, Rubenstein has been active in academic and socially conscious
organizations. From 1981 to 1992 he was the president of The Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy, a public policy research institute. He was also involved with the Professors World Peace Academy, The New Ecumenical Research Association, and the International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences, among many others. He was also on the Advisory Council to the Unification Church International.

Rubenstein’s bibliography is vast, having written countless articles for various journals and magazines such as The Reconstructionist, Conservative Judaism, and Christian Century among many others. Some of his most popular and profound books are After Auschwitz: Racial Theology and Contemporary Judaism (1966), The Age of Triage: Fear and Hope in an Overcrowded World (1983), Approaches to Auschwitz (1987), The Cunning of History (1975),  Morality and Eros (1970),  My Brother Paul (1972), Power Struggle (1974), The Religious Imagination (1968), and Spirit Matters: The Worldwide Impact of Religion on Contemporary Politics (1987).

Richard Rubenstein is married to Dr. Betty Rubenstein and has three children, Aaron,
Hannah, and Jeremy.
 

SCOPE AND CONTENT NOTE top

The Richard L. Rubenstein papers contain the correspondence and writings of Richard
Rubenstein, an educator, Holocaust scholar, and theologian. One of the most interesting sections of these papers is Subseries 1. Articles, Drafts, and Speeches in Series B. Writings. These eight boxes contain the correspondence, publicity and drafts of Rubenstein’s books. From these files it is possible to follow the life of a manuscript from its infancy to publication. Rubenstein is controversial in both his theological and Holocaust writings. In fact, the two merge in his writing, such as in After Auschwitz. What made Rubenstein’s work so questionable to many was his incorporation of many new ideas into old arguments, such as bringing psychoanalysis together with historical research. Rubenstein is also credited with the fusion of Judaism and the “Death of God” theory. The “Death of God” theory was popularized by existentialist philosophers mainly in a Christian context. Rubenstein broke new ground with his writings, and later expanded the context to a mor universal paradigm
by incorporating Asian religious thought.

The breadth of Rubenstein’s academic work can also be gauged from the correspondence
files. His interaction with scholars such as Raul Hilberg and John Roth and writers such as William Styron show the fascinating but less dramatic side of academic research and philosophical reasoning. Styron was inspired by Rubenstein’s writings and this influence came through in Stryon’s book Sophie’s Choice. Other important correspondence includes Rubenstein’s work with the Professors World Peace Academy, the International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences, and the Washington Institute. Each of these organizations were socially and academically concerned with the diplomatic and military direction that world leaders were pursuing and its effect on culture and religion. Contained within these files are proof of the influence that Rubenstein had on these organizations, as he climbed to leadership positions in all of the groups, and the influence they had on him.

Rubenstein is associated with the International Unification Church and became one of its most outspoken defenders, giving it legitimacy to the academic and political world through his stature. He has had several meetings with Reverend Sung Myung Moon and is perhaps one of the most coherent and comprehensive writers on the Unification Church. Rubenstein believes that new religions, particularly Asian religions, face the same backlash that all religions face as they confront the status quo. He was adamant that these new movements were not cults any more than established religions are.

Through an examination of the files in the collection, it is apparent that Rubenstein had a wide diversity of interests and concerns. He is respected as a major scholar in several fields, though his ideas have remained vital to American Jews. The intersection of the Judaism of his youth and his later academic and personal insights make for an interesting reconciliation of the old world and the new. His article, “Studying at Hebrew Union College,” and his book Power Struggle relate these experiences and thoughts (23/5, 22/1).
 

BOX AND FOLDER LIST top

Box     File    Contents
SERIES A. CORRESPONDENCE

1       1       1941.
        2       1952-1953.
        3       1957.
        4       1958.
        5       1959-1964.      
        6       1965.
        7       1966-1967.
        8       1968.
        9       Jan-May 1969.
        10      Jun-Dec 1969.

2       1       1970.
        2       1971.
        3       Jan-Jun 1972.
        4       Jul-Dec 1972.
        5       1973.
        6       1974.
        7       Jan-Jul 1975.

3       1       Aug-Dec 1975.
        2       Jan-Jun 1976.
        3       Jul-Dec 1976.
        4       Jan-Mar 1977.
        5       Apr-Dec 1977.
        6       1978.
        7       1979.

4       1       1980.
        2       1981.
        3       Jan-Jun 1982.
        4       Jul-Dec 1982.
        5       Jan-Jun 1983.
        6       Jul-Dec 1983.
        7       Jan-Jul 1984.

5       1       Aug-Dec 1984.
        2       1985.
        3       1986.
        4       Jan-Jul 1987.
        5       Aug-Dec 1987.
        6       Jan-Jul 1988.
6       1       Aug-Dec 1988.
        2       Jan-Jul 1989.
        3       Aug-Dec 1989.
        4       1990.
        5       1991.
        6       1992.

7       1       A-B, General.
        2       Advisory Council to the Unification Movement International. 1987.
        3       Advisory Council to the Unification Movement International. Prague. 1990.
        4       Aging Conference. 1990.
        5       Alonso, Marcelo. 1982-1984.
        6       Altizer, Thomas. 1963-1969.
        7       American Academy of Religion. 1989-1990.
        8       America and the Future of Theology Conference. Atlanta, Georgia. 
                    18-20 Nov 1965.
        9       American-Israel Dialogue. 1969.
        10      Anti-Unification Church. 1981-1983.
        11      Arendt Symposium. New York. 1-3 May 1981.
        12      Aspen Institute. 1978-1979.
        13      Autobiographical Theology. 1980.
        14      Bayer, Linda [Berenbaum]. 1981-1989.
        15      Berenbaum, Michael. 1989.
        16      Black Power. 1967-1969.
        17      B’nai B’rith District #5. 1970-1972.
        18      B’nai B’rith Hillel Foundation. 1969-1971.
        19      Bobbs-Merritt Company, Incorporated Publishers. Indianapolis, Indiana. 
                    1966-1970.
        20      Bobbs-Merritt Company, Incorporated Publishers. New York. 1966-1970.

8       1       Borchardt, Georges. 1966-1970, 1979-1983, 1988.
        2       Brockton, Massachusetts. 1953.
        3       C, General.
        4       Calenders. 1984-1986.
        5       Carey, John J. 1980.
        6       The Center for the Study of Southern Culture and Religion. 1973-1976.
        7       The Center for the Study of Southern Culture and Religion. 28 Feb 1979.
        8       Cobb, John B. 1980.
        9       Cohen, Arthur A. 1983, n.d.
        10      Cohen, Gershon D. 1978.
        11      Commenweal. 1967-1968.
        12      Conferences. 1980, 1985.
        13      Congress. Letters to. 1989-1994.
        14      Cosmos Club. 1983-1990.
        15      Council on Religions and International Affairs. 1968-1969.
        16      Council on Religions and International Affairs. 1971-1972.
        17      Cox, Harvey. 1966-1970, 1983, 1988-1989.
        18      Cutler, Donald R. 1967-1968.
        19      D-F, General.
        20      Davies, W.D. 1976
        21      Dissolving Alliance. Correspondence. 1986.
        22      Emory University. 1966-1967.
        23      Esalen Institute. 1968-1969.
        24      Esalen Institute. New York. 16-18 Apr 1971.
        25      Europe trip. 1983.
        26      Fein, Helen. 1989.
        27      Fleischner, Eva. 1977.

9       1       Florida State University. 1970.
        2       Florida State University. 1981-1982, 1985.
        3       Florida State University. 1991-1992.
        4       Florida State University. Convocation. 1990.
        5       Florida State University. Department of Religion. 1969.
        6       Florida State University. Exams. n.d.
        7       Florida State University. Humanities Institute. Wakulla Springs, 
                    Florida. 14-16 Sep 1984.
        8       Freedom Rally. Seoul, Korea. 1985.
        9       Fritzsche, Helmut. 1986-1988.
        10      G, General.
        11      Garber, Zev. 1990.
        12      H-J, General.
        13      Hamilton, William. 1967-1969.
        14      Harper & Row Publishers, Incorporated. 1969-1970.
        15      Harvard Club. Washington D.C. 1991.
        16      Hebrew Union College. 1941.
        17      Herder and Herder. New York. 1967-1970.
        18      Hilberg, Raul. 1989.
        19      Hillel Summer Institute. n.d.
        20      “Holocaust - 35 Years Later.” Witchita State University. 6-7 Oct 1977.
        21      Iliff School of Theology. Denver, Colorado. 1981.
        22      Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, Indiana. 1992.
        23      The Inter-Religious Federation for World Peace. Seoul, Korea. 1991.
        24      International Christian Professors Association. Osaka. 20 Jul 1985.
        25      International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences. 1976-1977.
        26      International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences. 1979-1981.
        27      International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences. 
                    Reverend Sung Myung Moon. 1979-1982.
        28      International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences. 1983.

10      1       International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences. 1986.
        2       International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences. 
                    Planning Board. 1987-1988.
        3       International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences. 1987-1990.
        4       International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences. 
                    Seoul, Korea. 23-26 1991.
        5       International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences. Seoul, Korea. 1992.
        6       International Symposium. Future of Auschwitz, Poland. 1992.
        7       International Scholars Conference. 1991.
        8       International Society of Political Psychology. Twelfth 
                    Annual Scientific Congress. Tel Aviv, Israel. 18-23 Jun 1989.
        9       Jain, Prem Suman. 1990.
        10      John Hopkins University. 1989-1991.
        11      K-L, General.
        12      Kaplan, Mordecai. 1954.
        13      Kaufman, Myron S. 1982.
        14      Kemp, Jack. 1987.
        15      Kliever, Lonnie D. 1984-1986.
        16      Kushner, Lawrence. n.d.
        17      Lectures on the Jew in America. University of California, 
                    Los Angeles. 1970.
        18      Letters to newspapers. 1976-1977.
        
11      1       M, General.
        2       Markham, Margaret. 1976-1977.
        3       McGraw Hill Book Company. 1967-1970.
        4       Merrill, Charles E. 1965-1969, 1983.
        5       Merrill Trust. Academic Enrichment Program for Rabbis. 1965-1969, 1979.
        6       “Military Defeat” proposal. 1979-1980.
        7       Modern Media Institute. 1980-1981.
        8       Moscow trip. 1989-1990.
        9       Muktananda, Swami. 1976-1982, n.d.
        10      N-P, General.
        11      National Conference on Genocide and Human Rights. “Seventy Years 
                    After the Genocide: Lessons from the Armenian Experience.” 
                    Bentley College. 18-20 Apr 1985.
        12      National Endowment for the Humanities. 1977.
        13      National Interfaith Coalition on Aging. Birmingham, Alabama. 1989.
        14      Netherlands Office for Foreign Students Relations. 1965-1966.
        15      New Ecumenical Research Association. Attendance. 
        16      New Ecumenical Research Association. 1985-1986.
        17      New Ecumenical Research Association. 1980-1982.
        18      New Ecumenical Research Association. “God Conference.” 1992.
        
12      1       P-T, General.
        2       Paulus Gesellschaft International. Florence, Italy. 1975.
        3       Paragon House Publishing. 1982-1984.
        4       Paragon House Publishing. 1988-1989.
        5       Paris trip. 1988.
        6       Personal. 1970.
        7       Peters, C. Brooks. 1978.
        8       Pinsdorf, Marion K. 1978-1982, n.d.
        9       Playboy Magazine. 1966-1969.
        10      Poland trip. 1965.
        11      Professors World Peace Academy. 1979-1982.
        12      Professors World Peace Academy. Asian Conferences. 1981.
        13      Professors World Peace Academy. 1982.
        14      Professors World Peace Academy. Korea. 1982.
        15      Professors World Peace Academy. Pribram, Karl. 1982.
        16      Professors World Peace Academy. Morocco. 1982-1983.
        17      Professors World Peace Academy. 1983-1984.
        18      Professors World Peace Academy. Japan. 1984.
        19      Professors World Peace Academy. 1985-1986.

13      1       Professors World Peace Academy. “God: The Contemporary Discussion.” 
                    9-15 Aug 1984.
        2       Publications. 1983-1984.
        3       Publishers. 1966-1969.
        4       Publishers. 1969-1971.
        5       Publishers. 1975-1980.
        6       Quest/77. 1976-1980.
        7       Radical Theology Seminar. 1971.
        8       Rome. Literary Prize. 1977.
        9       Roth, John K. 1982-1988.
        10      Sass, Hans Martin. 1988.
        11      Scotland lecture. 1965.
        12      Seoul, Korea. 1994.
        13      Sh’ma. 1992.
        14      Smith, Raymond. Regarding Holocaust and Poland. 1981.
        15      The Society for Religion in Higher Education. 1971-1972.
        16      Southern Oregon State College. Ashland, Oregon. 1992.
        17      Speaking Engagements. 1964-1965.
        18      Speaking Engagements. 1967-1970.
        19      Speaking Engagements. 1968-1972.
        
14      1       Speaking Engagements. 1969-1970.
        2       Speaking Engagements. 1978-1981.
        3       Speaking Engagements. 1985-1989.
        4       Speaking Engagements. 1987-1988.
        5       Speaking Engagements. 1988-1989.
        6       Speaking Engagements. 1990.
        7       Speaking Engagements. 1991.
        8       Speaking Engagements. 1991.
        9       Speaking Engagements. Moscow. 1991.

15      1       Strait, Glenn Carroll. Regarding Religion and Public Policy. 1980.
        2       Styron, William. 1979-1981.
        3       The Summit Council for World Peace. “The Twenty-First Century 
                    and the New World Order.” Seoul, Korea. 1991.
        4       Tallahassee letters. Florida State University position. 1970.
        5       Temple Israel. [Natick, Massachusetts]. 1952-1955.
        6       Temple Israel. [Natick, Massachusetts]. 1954-1956.
        7       Thailand trip. 1991.
        8       Tikkun. 1986-1987.
        9       Trepp. 1975.
        10      Tomei, Joseph. 1982.
        11      Udoff, Alan. 1988.
        12      Unification Church in Great Britain. 1985.
        13      United Theological Seminary. Barrytown, New York. 1986.
        14      University of Virginia. 1985-1986.
        15      Verlag, Kaiser. Lawsuit. 1973, 1982-1983.
        16      Washington Institute. Central America. 1980-1984.       
        17      Washington Institute. 1981-1982.
	     18 	 Washington Institute. Aggression Project. 1982-1984.
        19      Washington Institute. Asian Task Force. 1982-1984.
        20      Washington Institute. Foreign Policy Seminars. 1982-1984.
        21      Washington Institute. 1983.

16      1       Washington Institute. Africa. 1983-1984.
        2       Washington Institute. Nuclear Project. 1983.
        3       Washington Institute. 1984.
        4       Washington Institute. 1985-1988.
        5       Washington Institute. “Five Decades of Peace in Europe.” 1985-1986.
        6       Washington Institute. Latin American Liberation Theology. 14-16 Oct 1987.
        7       Washington Institute. Ethics Panel. Planning Committee Meting. 13 Jun 1988.
        8       Washington Institute. Festival of World Cultures. 1989.
        9       Washington Institute. 1989-1990.
        10      The Washington Times. Advisory Board. 1984-1987.
        11      Worth, Tobia Lessler. 1983.
        12      Vatican II. Boston College. 1970.
        13      Yoshida, Kazuo. 1980-1981.
        14      Unidentified correspondence.

SERIES B. WRITINGS
Subseries 1. Articles, Drafts, Speeches

17      1       A, General.
        2       After Auschwitz. Drafts.
        3       After Auschwitz. Errors.
        4       After Auschwitz. Proposal.
        5       After Auschwitz. Publicity.
        6       After Auschwitz. Revised Edition. Correspondence. 1985-1991.
        7       “After Auschwitz - Some Reconsiderations.”
        8       Age of Triage: Fear and Hope in an Overcrowded World. Draft.
        9       Age of Triage: Fear and Hope in an Overcrowded World. Prospectus.
        10      Age of Triage: Fear and Hope in an Overcrowded World. Publicity.
        11      “Anticipations of the Holocaust in the Political Sociology of Max Weber.” 

18      1       Approaches to Auschwitz: The Holocaust and its Legacy. Excerpts.
        2       B, General.
        3       C, General.
        4       The Cunning of History. Correspondence. 1975-1981, n.d.
        5       The Cunning of History. Draft.
        6       The Cunning of History. Draft.
        7       The Cunning of History. Preface to Japanese Edition.
        8       The Cunning of History. Publicity.
        9       The Cunning of History. Reviews. 1980-1981.     
                
19      1       D, General.
        2       “Dialogue Between Rabbi Richard Rubenstein and Reverend Andrew Young.”
        3       “A Dialogue on Religion and Psychology.” 1963.
        4       E, General.
        5       F, General.
        6       G, General.
        7       H, General.
        8       I, General.

20      1       Interviews. 1985, n.d.
        2       J, General.
        3       L, General.
        4       M, General.
        5       “Modernization, the Post-Confucian Challenge and the Vocation of 
                    Asian Christianity.”
        6       Morality and Eros. Draft.
        7       My Brother Paul. Correspondence. 1971-1973.

21      1       My Brother Paul. Draft.
        2       My Brother Paul. Reviews. 1971-1972.
        3       N, General.
        4       O, General.
        5       P, General.
        6       Power Struggle. Correspondence. 1973-1976.
        
22      1       Power Struggle. Draft.
        2       Power Struggle. Reviews.
        3       Publication contracts.. 1971-1974.
        4       Ra-Ref, General.

23      1       Rel-Rew, General.
        2       The Religious Imagination: A Study in Psychoanalysis and 
                    Jewish Theology. Draft.
        3       The Religious Imagination: A Study in Psychoanalysis and 
                    Jewish Theology. Publicity, Reviews. 
        4       Reviews.
        5       S, General.
        
24      1       St. Louis Speech. n.d.
        2       Speeches. 
        3       Speeches. Untitled. n.d.
        4       T, General.
        5       Transcripts. Stanley Kellman interview. San Francisco. Early 1970s. 
        6       Transcripts. Stanley Kellman interview. San Francisco. Early 1970s. 
        7       Transcripts. Stanley Kellman interview. San Francisco. Early 1970s. 
        8       Transcripts. Stanley Kellman interview. San Francisco. Early 1970s. 
        9       Transcripts. Stanley Kellman interview. San Francisco. Early 1970s. 
        10      U, General.
        11      V, General.
        12      W, General.
        13      Writings.

Subseries 2. Notes

25      1       Christian Thought Since Kant.
        2       Church History. 1952-1953.
        3       Cohen, Herman.
        4       Education papers. Jewish Theological Seminary of America.
        5       Epistle to Romans. Harvard University.
        6       Ethics. Harvard University.
        7       Exams. Florida State University.
        8       Gilson, Gabriel.
        9       Harvard thesis material.
        10      Hegel, George Wilhelm Friedrich. Harvard University. 1957.
        11      Hegel, George Wilhelm Friedrich. Harvard University.
        12      Hegel Phenomenology. Harvard University.
        13      History of Philosophy. University of Cincinnati.
        14      History of Political Theory. University of Cincinnati.
        15      Jewish Theological Seminary qualification test.
        16      Kierkegaard, Soren.
        17      Luther, Martin.
        18      Medieval Jewish Philosophy. Isaac Husik.
        19      Medieval Philosophy.
        
26      1       Metaphysics. Heidegger, Martin. Harvard University.
        2       National Endowment for the Humanities. Holocaust course. Syllabus.
        3       National Endowment for the Humanities. Holocaust course. 9 Jan-1 Feb 1979.
        4       National Endowment for the Humanities. Holocaust course. 21 Feb-8 Mar 1979.
        5       Notes on the Worldwide Impact of Religion on Contemporary Politics.
        6       Old Testament. Harvard University. 1952.

27      1       Origin of Monotheism. Ginsburg, H.L. Jewish Theological 
                    Seminary of America.
        2       Papal Infallibility.
        3       Paul. Harvard University.
        4       Paul. Harvard University.
        5       Paul. Harvard University.
        6       Paul. University of Cincinnati.
        7       Paul and his Interpretors.
        8       Pharisaism.
        9       Philo. University of Cincinnati.
        10      Philosophy seminar. University of Cincinnati.
        11      Plato. University of Cincinnati.
        12      Psychology of Religion. 1963.
        13      Rambam. Harvard University. 1952-1953.
        14      Sermon notes. 1950-1954
        15      Spinoza, Liebniz, Kant. University of Cincinnati.
        16      Talmud - Medieval Jewish Philosophy.
        17      Unification Church.
        18      Unidentified notes.

SERIES C. PERSONAL

28      1       Appointment book. 1964-1965.
        2       Awards.
        3       Biographical information.
        4       Photographs.
        5       Publicity. Articles.
        6       Publicity. 
        7       Rubenstein, Betty. 1988.
        8       Rubenstein Family.
        9       Rubenstein, Nathaniel Ephraim. 1950.

SERIES D. AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIAL

VT-607  Age of Triage. 3 Mar 1983.
VT-608  “Can We Comprehend the Holocaust?” Symposia in Judaica. 19 Feb 1984.
VT-609  “Holocaust.”
VT-610  “The Holocaust and the Human Future: Lessons to be Learned.”
VT-611  Rubenstein, Richard. Interview. Professors World Peace Academy. Japan. 7 Jul 1984.
VT-612  Rubenstein, Richard. Japan Lecture. 1985.
VT-613  Rubenstein, Richard. 21 Jun 1988.
VT-614  Rubenstein, Richard. n.d.
VT-615  “Wars of Religion of the Twenty-first Century.” 11 Jan 1991.
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